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> The "Dollar", Just...think about it.
post May 3 2008, 03:21 PM
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I thought you might find this interesting; I did.


Define the Dollar - If You Can

Ralph Winterrowd is a legal genius who pulls no punches. He has periodically turned the Alaskan State government bureaucrats on their ears and has multiple cases before their courts… and has a few victories. Here he adds a simple question… can you answer it? Victor



Ralph Kermit Winterrowd

This was sent to me via an e-mail and though many of us are familiar with some aspects with the problems with the Dollar, I thought is was important enough to add to the lists.


Please Define the Dollar $ or $ or ...?

Monetary Realists, knowing not so much what they've been taught, but what they've learned with their eyes open and ears tuned, see things clearly, without peering through a haze of misinformation masquerading as knowledge. Like the boy in The Emperor's New Clothes, they make observations which seem to cause frustration and annoyance to those public figures to which they are directed. A case in point is the word "dollar," the definition of which has been sought by Monetary Realists for decades.

Some years ago Paul Volcker, of the Federal Reserve, was lecturing in St. Louis. A Monetary Realist (not your author) was in attendance. At the conclusion of Mr. Volcker's remarks, questions were invited, and the Monetary Realist asked, "Mr. Volcker, in your remarks you used the word "dollar" twenty-six (or whatever) times. Can you tell me what a dollar is?" There was a remarkable silence. Volcker said nothing. The silence grew protracted; it was

embarrassing. "Well, sir, can you tell me what the yen is, or the mark? You mentioned them
as well." The silence continued. Eventually, the host made some excuse and hustled Mr. Volcker from the stage.

Over twenty years ago I wrote a letter to the head of the St. Louis Federal Reserve and asked another simple question: is our money tangible? If so, I asked, what are its physical characteristics? If not, how can you tell if you've got it? A brief note was received in reply, stating, in effect, that due to the "technical nature" of my question, the president (of the bank) was unable to answer at this time. He hasn't answered since.

On discovering the ease with which federal officials can be reached via the internet, I recently decided to try again, and on September 6, 1998, sent this message to the Treasury Department: "How is the word "dollar" defined in U.S. Law? Can you give me the citation? Thanks." The answer received was from "Customer Assistance," and read, "Thank you for your recent inquiry. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) examines national banks to assure their safe and sound financial condition and to ensure their compliance with federal banking laws, rules, and regulations. The dollar is defined as a currency bill and monetary unit of the United States, equal to 100 cents. This Office does not have information on the specific cite in the federal regulations. You may try contacting the Federal Reserve Bank at 202-874-4700. We trust this is responsive to your inquiry."

Well, not quite. I replied, on September 14:
"Dear Customer Assistance:
Thank you for your letter. You write that the dollar is a currency bill. Does that mean it is an IOU? An IOU for what? You also say it is a monetary unit. A unit is a standardized amount used in measuring. What does the dollar measure? Of what is it a unit? Thank you." This time I received a response from an actual person with a name, Angela Willis, a Customer Assistance Specialist. "Thank you for your recent inquiry. Please contact the Federal Reserve Bank for any other questions you may have. Thank you."

I responded: "I would like an answer from the government. Isn't the Federal reserve a private bank?" Ms. Willis replied: "Thank you for your recent inquiry. The Federal Reserve Bank is the central bank of the United States Government. It was founded by Congress in 1913 to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system. We trust this is responsive to your inquiry."

Wow! Talk about pulling teeth. I tried again: "I'm sorry, but your answer is NOT responsive. The question was, and is, "what is a dollar?" Don't refer me to a private banking cartel for the answer to what surely must be defined in U.S. Law. After all, if there is no definition of the dollar, how can a person measure his income in dollars and swear to the government that the answer is "true, correct, and complete?" Congress is given authority to regulate the value

of the dollar. What is its value? Don't tell me it's 100 cents, and then define the cent as 1/100th of a dollar. Please try again. It's a simple question, isn't it? Thanks."

Ms. Willis, was, I fear, losing patience with me. "Thank you for your recent inquiry. We have tried to direct you to the agency that could be most responsive to your inquiry. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency regulates national banks. This agency does not have regulatory authority over actual currency, although our name may make you think otherwise. If you have

issues dealing with the national banking system, please feel free to request our assistance. We will not respond to any other inquiries regarding the definition of a dollar."

In other words, the U.S. Treasury either doesn't know, or won't tell, what a "dollar" is. Moreover, in taking this evasive stand, it tries to distract the questioner with irrelevant references to the Comptroller of the Currency, and a disingenuous disclaimer that it (the Treasury) has no "regulatory authority over actual currency."

Back in 70s I asked the dollar question to the Internal Revenue Service. After all, you must swear to the value of your income in "dollars," testifying that your evaluation is "true, correct, and complete," under penalty of perjury, although, having taken no oath, you couldn't have committed that crime. Surely, therefore, the IRS would know what a dollar is. How else could it determine the accuracy of the return? The reply from the IRS was remarkably straightforward: "The term "dollar" is not defined in the Internal Revenue Code." I wrote back, requesting a definition from any portion of the United States Code, and am still awaiting the reply.

About the same time I wrote a letter to the president of my bank, and asked him what a dollar was. He sent me a very nice, rather rambling letter, in which he concluded that he really couldn't tell me, but if I found out what it was, would I let him know?

It is experiences such as these which give Monetary Realists, and others, I am sure, grounds for the gravest cynicism about economic matters. The silly platitudes mouthed by President Clinton about the Russian economy, for example, deserve nothing but contempt. When a people work for "money" which is so ephemeral as to defy description, measured out in units which cannot be defined by the country's monetary authorities, the problem transcends political

parties or economic policies. The rot is in the roots, not the branches.

In the days of tangible money, or sound money, or even just plain money, as opposed to "credit," the dollar was easy to define: 412.5 grains of standard ( 90% pure) silver in coin form. The 412.5 grain figure was an average; the coin weighed 416 when minted. When, through wear and tear, its weight fell below 409 grains, it was no longer a dollar, but could be used in trade for a value in proportion to its weight. In general, banks culled out the worn coins and returned them to the mint to be recast. What a simple system! A bank official, asked to define "dollar," could do so in a sentence, without reference to the Comptroller of the Currency, or bank regulations, or "authority over actual ( sic! ) currency." Moreover, he could do so without making a fool of himself by attempts to mislead, confuse, or deceive. He wouldn't even have to

piously reiterate "Thank you for your inquiry" every time he gave a long-winded response that had nothing to do with the inquiry.

Money is one of the basics of society. Is it extreme to suggest that without sound money there cannot be a sound society? And if the money is inherently dishonest, what does that say of the people who issue it, or even of the people who accept it?

Dr. Paul Hein

November 14, 2002

Monday, December 18th 2006

Christopher Hansen

In the on going quest for truth, justice and the American Way I have been doing research on taxes, money, dollars, liberty dollars, etc. Since the Secretary of State of Nevada, The Deputy Nevada Attorney General that represents Dean Heller and Senator John Ensign could not define what a "dollar" is in a legally binding sense and since three employees at three different branches of the Federal Reserve Bank have given three different meanings or non-meanings to what a dollar is I thought I should do some additional research.

I contacted the Treasury Department to find out how I can redeem federal reserve notes into "lawful money" as per http://uscode.house.gov/download/pls/12C3.txt (http://uscode.house.gov/download/pls/12C3.txt) 12 USC Sec. 411 and I was only transferred once before I found a very nice lady named Claudia Dickens and the Bureau of Printing and Engraving. She was not sure about what lawful money was but said she would check and get back to me. She called me back in just a few minutes and informed me that she was checking with "legal" since she was not sure if the legal definition was the same as it was in "2003."

She was concerned about the time difference between Washington D.C. and Nevada and said if she did not get back to me today (since it was close to quitting time) she would get back to me tomorrow. I asked her if I could just send her an Email because I was in and out all the time and did not want to miss her call. She was sweet enough to give me her Email address (no I am not giving it out to anyone because she did not say I could) and she said she would answer by Email.

I would suggest that you take the time to write your Congressmen or Congresswomen and ask them the same questions.

You may also wish to contact Treasury directly by phone (and I highly recommend you call them and ask if you can send them an email) writing them (due to the PATRIOT ACT a letter takes months to get to them) or faxing them your questions.

I would try to find a different contact than I have found so we can get different responses from different people.

The following is what I sent and I will post the "legal" answer when I receive it.

Hello Claudia Dickens,

Thank you so much for speaking to me today. And say hello to "Pete" over at "Public Debt" that gave me your number. He obviously thought highly of you.

My name is Christopher Hansen, I am the State Chairman of the Independent American Party of Nevada. We have 44,000 registered members and are the third largest political party in Nevada. I am also the editor and researcher for the Independent American Press which is the Newspaper for the Party.

I have been asked a question by several party members and they asked me to write an article on the subject. They wanted to know what "Lawful money" is as per USC 12 Sec. 411. (See below) They also wanted to know the legal definition of a "dollar" since the Gold Commission, in testimony before Congress, criticized the Treasury Department for failing to define the

term "dollar." During testimony they stated "The word "dollar" quite literally, is legally meaningless, and it has been meaningless for the past decade. Federal Reserve notes are not "dollars;" they are notes denominated in "dollars." But what a "dollar" is, no one knows."

It would be hard to believe that the Gold Commission was correct or that if they were correct that Congress has not rectified the situation since 1982 and defined "dollar."

So what is the legal definition of "dollar" so when we see it in the laws and statutes we can know what it means. And what is "lawful money" and how do we "redeem" "federal reserve notes" into "lawful money"?

Thank you,

Christopher Hansen

USC Sec. 411 01/03/05






Sec. 411. Issuance to reserve banks; nature of obligation; redemption


Federal reserve notes, to be issued at the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System for the purpose of making advances to Federal reserve banks through the Federal reserve agents as hereinafter set forth and for no other purpose, are authorized. The said notes shall be obligations of the United States and shall be receivable by all national and member banks and Federal reserve banks and for all taxes, customs, and other public dues. They shall be redeemed in lawful money on demand at the Treasury Department of the United States, in the city of Washington, District of Columbia, or at any Federal Reserve bank.

In his farewell address (September 19, 1796), President George Washington told the nation: "Reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle. . . . Virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government."
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post May 4 2008, 07:49 PM
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Take out a one dollar bill and look at it. The one dollar bill
you're looking at first came off the presses in 1957 in its present
This so-called paper money is in fact a cotton and linen blend, with
red and blue minute silk fibers running through it. It is actually material.
We've all washed it without it falling apart. A special blend of ink is
used, the contents we will never know. It is overprinted with symbols and then
it is starched to make it water resistant and pressed to give it that nice
crisp look.
If you look on the front of the bill, you will see the United
States Treasury Seal. On the top you will see the scales for the
balance, that is, a balanced budget. In the center you have a carpenter's T-square, a
tool used for an even cut. Underneath is the Key to the United States Treasury.
That's all pretty easy to figure out, but what is on the back of
that dollar bill is something we should all know. If you turn the bill
over, you will see two circles. Both circles, together, comprise the Great
Seal of the United States. The First Continental Congress requested that
Benjamin Franklin and a group of men come up with a Seal. It took them
four years to accomplish this task and another two years to get it approved.
If you look at the left hand circle, you will see a Pyramid.
Notice the face is lighted and the western side is dark. This country
was just beginning. We had not begun to explore the West or decided
what we could do for Western Civilization. The Pyramid is uncapped, again signifying
that we were not even close to being finished. Inside the capstone you have
the all-seeing eye, and ancient symbol for divinity. It was Franklin's
belief that one man couldn't do it alone, but a group of men, with the
help of God, could do anything. "IN GOD WE TRUST" is on this currency. The Latin
above the pyramid, ANNUIT COEPTIS, means "God has favored our
undertaking." The Latin below the pyramid, NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM, means
"a new order has begun."
At the base of the pyramid is the Roman Numeral for 1776.
If you look at the right-hand circle, and check it carefully, you
will learn that it is on every National Cemetery in the United States.
It is also on the Parade of Flags Walkway at the Bushnell, Florida
National Cemetery and is the centerpiece of most hero's monuments.
Slightly modified, it is the seal of the President of the United
States and it is always visible whenever he speaks, yet no one knows
what the symbols mean. The Bald Eagle was selected as a symbol for
victory for two reasons: first, he is not afraid of a storm; he is strong and he is smart enough to
soar above it. Secondly, he wears no material crown. We had just
broken from the King of England. Also, notice the shield is unsupported. This country
can now stand on its own. At the top of that shield you have a white
bar signifying congress, a unifying factor. We were coming together as
one nation. In the Eagle's beak you will read, "E PLURIBUS UNUM,"
meaning "one nation from many people."
Above the Eagle you have thirteen stars representing the thirteen
original colonies, and any clouds of misunderstanding rolling away.
Again, we were coming together as one. Notice what the Eagle holds in
his talons. He holds an olive branch and arrows. This country wants peace, but we will
never be afraid to fight to preserve peace. The Eagle always wants to
face the olive branch, but in time of war, his gaze turns toward the arrows. They say
that the number 13 is an unlucky number. This is almost a worldwide
belief. You will usually never see a room numbered 13, or any hotels
or motels with a 13th floor. But, think about this: 13 original
colonies, 13 stripes on our flag, 13 steps on the Pyramid, 13 letters
in the Latin above, 13 letters in "E Pluribus Unum", 13 stars above the Eagle, 13 plumes of feathers on
each span of the Eagle's wing, 13 bars on that shield, 13 leaves on
the olive branch, 13 fruits, and if you look closely, 13 arrows. And
for minorities: the 13th Amendment.

Pass this on. Your children don't know this and their history teachers
don't know this. Too may veterans have given up too much to ever let the
meaning fade. Many veterans remember coming home to an America that didn't
care. Too many veterans never came home at all. Tell everyone what is
on the back of the one dollar bill and what it stands for, because nobody else will.

In his farewell address (September 19, 1796), President George Washington told the nation: "Reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle. . . . Virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government."
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